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Of particular concern in several European countries is the rise of Islamophobia, the fear and hatred of Islam, resulting in discrimination against Muslims or people associated with Islam. Islam is the most widespread religion in Europe after Christianity and the majority religion in various member states of the Council of Europe. The hostility towards Islam as a religion and to Muslim people, particularly following the "wars on terror", has revealed deep-rooted prejudices against Muslims in many European societies.

With the perception of the religion of Islam as being associated only with terrorism and extremism, Islamophobia has contributed to negative views of Islam and Muslims, wrongly generalising militant religious extremism and ultra-conservatism onto all Muslim countries and Muslim people. This intolerance and stereotyped view of Islam has manifested itself in a number of ways, ranging from verbal or written abuse of Muslim people, discrimination at schools and workplaces, and psychological harassment or pressure, to outright violent attacks on mosques and individuals, especially women who wear headscarves.

Like other victims of discrimination grounded on religious affiliation, discrimination against Muslims may overlap with other forms of discrimination and xenophobia, such as anti-immigrant sentiments, racism and sexism. Six recurring prejudices about Muslims All the same: Muslims are seen as all being much the same as each other, regardless of their nationality, social class and political outlook, and of whether they are observant in their beliefs and practice.

All are motivated by religion: It is thought that the single most important thing about Muslims, in all circumstances, is their religious faith. So, if Muslims engage in violence, for example, it is assumed that this is because their religion advocates violence. Totally "other": Muslims are seen as totally "other": they are seen as having few if any interests, needs or values in common with people who do not have a Muslim background. Culturally and morally inferior: Muslims are seen as culturally and morally inferior and prone to being irrational and violent, intolerant in their treatment of women, contemptuous towards world views different from their own, and hostile and resentful towards "the West" for no good reason.

Threat: Muslims are seen as a security threat, in tacit or open sympathy with international terrorism and bent on the "Islamisation" of the countries where they live. Co-operation is impossible: As a consequence of the previous five perceptions, it is claimed that there is no possibility of active partnership between Muslims and people with different religious or cultural backgrounds.

Christianophobia refers to every form of discrimination and intolerance against some or all Christians, the Christian religion, or the practice of Christianity. Like other forms of discrimination based on religion, the perpetrators may be people from other religions — often the majority religions — as much as secular institutions.

Hostility against Christians manifests itself in attacks against places of worship, verbal abuse and, particularly in countries where Christians are a minority, restrictions on building and sometimes preserving churches or monasteries. Particularly worrying is the rise in attacks against Christians in the Middle East. A recommendation of the Parliamentary Assembly on this matter calls, amongst other things, for the need to "raise awareness about the need to combat all forms of religious fundamentalism and the manipulation of religious beliefs for political reasons, which are so often the cause of present day terrorism.

Education and dialogue are two important tools that could contribute towards the prevention of such evils" 8. Question: Have you ever experienced any bias towards you because of your religion or belief? How did you react? As you would have people do to you, do to them; and what you dislike to be done to you, don't do to them.

Prophet Mohammed. Antisemitism — hostility towards Jews as a religious or minority group often accompanied by social, economic, and political discrimination — is an example of the combination of racism and religious discrimination. Even though the direct targets of antisemitism are Jewish people, the motivation for discrimination and violence is not necessarily based on Judaism as a religion but on Jews as a people. Reports from human rights organisations regularly state an alarming rise in the number of antisemitic attacks accompanied, in some countries, by the rise of openly antisemitic speech in the political arena.

Events include attacks against Jewish schools, "while Jewish pupils were assaulted, harassed, and injured in growing numbers on their way to and from school or in the classroom, including by their classmates. Educators report that the term "Jew" has become a popular swearword among youngsters. In its Recommendation No. Religious intolerance and discrimination is not limited to Antisemitism, Christianophobia or Islamophobia. Among the many forms of discrimination is the non-recognition of some religions and the difference of treatment between them. Religions and systems of belief can thus be banned, persecuted or closely controlled because of their alleged "sectarian" nature or their irrelevance on the grounds of being "insignificant".

It is important to recall that freedom of religion and belief includes the right to change religion and the right not to adhere to, or declare, a religion. Question: What happens if you decide to adopt a religion different from your family and community? One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one's own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Brihaspati, Mahabharata. Despite the growing and widespread manifestations of religious intolerance, it is important to bear in mind that religion and human rights are perfectly compatible and that only a human rights framework can secure freedom of religion and belief for all.

The history of Europe is, indeed, full of examples of violence and barbarity in the name of religion. These acts have been and are being committed by men and women, not commanded by religious precepts, but by people. Fortunately, the history and the reality of our world is also a living evidence of the optimism of religious diversity: no single society is mono-religious and no single system of thought has ever prevailed, even under the most extreme forms of totalitarianism. Furthermore, the examples of people accepting each other despite religious difference, and often united in diversity, are many more than those of intolerance.

The Council of Europe, White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue "Living Together as Equals in Dignity" recognises that a range of religious and secular conceptions of life have enriched the cultural heritage of Europe and notes the importance of inter-religious, intra-religious and other dialogue for the promotion of understanding between different cultures. It also emphasises that the Council of Europe "would remain neutral towards the various religions whilst defending the freedom of thought, conscience and religion, the rights and duties of all citizens, and the respective autonomy of state and religions".

A number of events organised under the All Different — All Equal campaign in developed recommendations and action plans for promoting inter-religious dialogue in European youth work, including the Istanbul Youth Declaration on Inter-Religious and Intercultural Dialogue in Youth Work 12 , and the Kazan Action Plan All of these documents stress the crucial role of young people and youth organisations in contributing to the change towards religious tolerance.

The sphere of education may be a platform for tensions of human rights related to religion and belief, as in cases where the educational content has been criticised as limiting the freedom of religion and belief, or in cases where religious symbols used by schools or by students have resulted in conflicts. At the same time, education is also one of the most important spheres of life where stereotypes and prejudices can be counteracted.

Norway Parents successfully appealed to the court in Strasbourg to avoid mandatory religious classes of one particular denomination of Christianity. The court found that the state was in violation of Article 2 of Protocol no. In the exercise of any functions which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the right of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions". Lautsi v. Italy Ms Lautsi's children attended a state school where all the classrooms had a crucifix on the wall, which she considered contrary to the principle of secularism by which she wished to bring up her children.

She complained before the Court that this was in breach of Article 9 freedom of thought, conscience and religion and of Article 2 of Protocol No. The Court found no violation; it held in particular that the question of religious symbols in classrooms was, in principle, a matter falling within the margin of appreciation of the state, provided that decisions in that area did not lead to a form of indoctrination and there was nothing to suggest that the authorities were intolerant of pupils who believed in other religions, were non-believers or who held non-religious philosophical convictions.

Ercep v. Turkey This case concerned the refusal by the applicant, a Jehovah's Witness and conscientious objector, to perform military service for reasons of conscience and his successive convictions for that reason. The Court found a violation of Article 9 and a violation of Article 6 right to a fair trial. It invited Turkey to enact legislation concerning conscientious objectors and to introduce an alternative form of service.


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The Framework Convention on the Protection of National Minorities also protects religion as an element of the identity of minorities, "The Parties undertake to promote the conditions necessary for persons belonging to national minorities to maintain and develop their culture, and to preserve the essential elements of their identity, namely their religion, language, traditions and cultural heritage" Article 5 and prohibits forced assimilation.

Nothing which breathes, which exists, which lives, or which has essence or potential of life, should be destroyed or ruled over, or subjugated, or harmed, or denied of its essence or potential.

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A Primal Perspective on the Philosophy of Religion - Arvind Sharma - Google книги

Just as sorrow or pain is not desirable to you, so it is to all which breathe, exist, live or have any essence of life. Acaranga Sutra. Religion is an issue that many young people deal with in their daily lives at home, in public, at work or at school. Youth work can help to make religious differences a factor of cultural enrichment for young people instead of being a source of confrontation, especially through the lenses of mutual understanding, tolerance and acceptance of difference. Whether working at a local, regional or international level, youth workers need to be aware of the potential role and influence of religion and belief on the process of any given activity, as well as on the planned objectives of the activity.

Accepting diversity is a good starting point; building on diversity as a source of strength is an excellent way to continue. A growing number of youth organisations are actively working in the field of inter-religious dialogue, promoting a dialogue between equals, and being self-critical of their own religious traditions, with the aim of increasing understanding.

Taking into consideration differences of belief and practice within the group, before and during the activity, can contribute to a better atmosphere in the group from the start. Knowing about some of the rituals and practices of different religions can be very useful and important for the good functioning and success of youth events. Consideration of dietary laws, places and times for prayer, the religious calendar and daily practices of different religious groups e.

The particularities of the place of the activity and the expectations of the hosting environment are equally important, in order to show respect for the needs of the group participants. A degree of sensitivity towards religious diversity within the group would create a certain positive and motivating attitude and curiosity towards the religious practices and beliefs of others.

This might also help to promote mutual respect and understanding, while helping to overcome any strong prejudices related to religious beliefs and practices. Question: What importance does religious tolerance have in your work with young people? There is a large amount of youth work that is faith-based, and there are many faith-based youth organisations.

The Council of Europe's youth sector works closely with a variety of international youth organisations that are faith-based and encourages co-operation among them. Study sessions and training activities at the European Youth Centre regularly include organisations such as:.

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Regard your neighbour's gain as your own gain, and your neighbour's loss as your own loss. T'ai Shang Kan Ying P'ien.

Some of these organisations got together within the framework of the European Youth Forum and constituted the Faith-Based Group of youth organisations in order to learn about each other, promote diversity and fight discrimination and hatred. The Tool Kit, published by the European Youth Forum, provides information about monotheistic religions and proposes several methodologies and activities to understand and de-construct prejudices and stereotypes related to religion and to promote inter-religious dialogue.

The tool kit may be downloaded from the Internet site of the European Youth Forum www. Equality and Human Rights Commission, , p. Council of Europe Portal. Breadcrumb You are here: publi. What is religion and belief? Every dictator uses religion as a prop to keep himself in power. Benazir Bhutto. Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself. Do not do to others what would anger you if done to you by others. A representative sample of these would include the following. Further, the progressivist evolutionary paradigm championed by Freud, with its projection of a universal linear cultural development from the primitive to the civilized, is largely rejected by contemporary ethnologists and social anthropologists, in particular those influenced by the work of Franz Boas — Popper did so on the grounds that the terms in which psychoanalytic theory is couched make it unfalsifiable in principle and thus unscientific.

This latter stratagem, with some variations, has subsequently been adopted by a number of other commentators who seek a mechanism to validate the Freudian cultural narrative in the face of its undeniable ethnological shortcomings compare, for example, Paul, On such a view, the deficiencies presented by the Freudian narrative are read as being hermeneutic rather than scientific, open to further articulation and refinement through a more nuanced and balanced interpretation of the symbolic structure of religious discourse.

By contrast, he insisted on seeing psychoanalysis precisely as a testable theory, but one which is based upon clinical reports from therapeutic practice rather than rigorous experimentally-derived evidence. They cannot therefore properly be regarded as providing confirmatory evidence for the theory, while contemporary psychoanalysis has not met the objection that successful therapy operates as a placebo. The latter is now largely rejected by contemporary science, in particular the manner in which Freudians have adopted it to model the social evolution of human beings analogically with the psychological development of children.

The entire enterprise of accounting for the origins of religion as an evolutionary trajectory from polytheism to monotheism has been challenged by the work of the ethnologist Father Wilhelm Schmidt — , whose multi-volume Der Ursprung der Gottesidee The Origin of the Idea of God ; — is a wide-ranging study of primitive religion. Schmidt, who was influenced by Boas and his followers, was accordingly critical of evolutionist accounts of religious development, contending that they frequently lack solid grounding in the historical and anthropological evidence, and was dismissive on those grounds of the totemic theory propagated by Freud.

Freud feared for a possible suppression of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the mids by the ruling Catholic authorities, with whom Schmidt had considerable influence. That fear, combined with hope—which proved unfortunately ill-grounded—that those authorities might function as a bulwark against the threat of Nazism, persuaded Freud to defer publication of the full text of Moses and Monotheism until after he had taken up residence in England see Freud , Prefatory Notes to Part , a fact which itself had a considerably negative effect on the literary coherence of the work.

In The Elementary Forms Durkheim set himself the task of analyzing religion empirically as a social phenomenon, holding that such a treatment alone can reveal its true nature. For Durkheim, the social dimension of human life is primary; human individuality itself is largely determined by, and is a function of, social interaction and organization. This was a point missed by Freud, who, we have seen, sought to deal with the social dimension of religion by an extension of psychoanalytical principles from individual to group psychology. Such facts exist at the level of society as a whole and arise from social relationships and human associations, and include law, morality, contractual relationships and, perhaps most importantly, religion.

He saw the connection between religious beliefs and practices as a necessary one; for him, religious experience is rooted more in the actions associated with rites than it is in reflective thought. Traditional accounts of religion have tended to treat religious beliefs as essentially hypothetical or quasi-scientific in nature—an approach clearly evident in Freud—which almost inevitably raises skeptical doubts about their validity, whereas Durkheim saw that what is important to the believer is the normative dimension of faith.

This often leads the participants into a state of psychological excitement resembling delirium, in which they come to feel transported into a higher level of existence where they make direct contact with the sacred object.

Introduction

Participation in such rituals has the effect of affirming and strengthening the collective identity of the group and must be renewed periodically in order to consolidate that identity. Given that it is a foundational postulate of sociology that no human institution rests upon an error or a lie, he declared it unscientific to suggest that systems of ideas of such complexity as religions could be delusory or be the product of illusion, as Freud was to do. If it is impossible for religious belief, considered as a set of representations relating to the sacred, to be erroneous in its own social right, error can and does emerge, he argued, in the interpretation of what those representations mean , even within the framework of a particular culture.

This point regarding the socially-imposed nature of the meanings associated with collective representations can perhaps be most clearly illustrated by reference to now-defunct cultures and religions. For example, while we readily recognize that the Moai, the deeply impressive monolithic statues of Easter Island, unquestionably had a particular political, aesthetic and religious significance for the Rapa Nui people who created them, the meaning of that symbolism largely escapes us—archeological and anthropological reconstruction aside—as we view them from a perspective external to that culture.

Durkheim contended that in a religious context, the sacred object, which is indeed greater than the individual, is nothing more or less than the power o f society itself which, in order to be represented symbolically at all, has be objectified through a process of projection. Unlike Freud, Durkheim also sought to provide an account of religion which achieves full scientific probity while simultaneously doing justice to the richness of the actual lived experiences of believers.

Notwithstanding that, however, it seems clear that in the final analysis his anti-skeptical stratagem works satisfactorily only on its own, scientific terms; a believer could scarcely derive comfort from a view which legitimates his belief-system qua sociological fact while implying that the personal God of worship which is its intentional object is, in reality, nothing other than society personified. This raises the whole question of the intellectual plausibility of the projection theory of religion.

The question is a complex one, a fact which Freud scarcely acknowledges in his works. As we have seen, the theory, which has a number of related but distinct forms, arose in modernity as a response to the anthropomorphic nature of the attributes which the conceptualization of a personal God in many of the great world religions seems to necessitate. Belief in God, and the complex patterns of behavior and of rituals associated with that belief, he argued, arise essentially out of the deep psychological need for a Cosmic father.

However, it has been pointed out that such a view underestimates the logical gulf that exists between wishes and beliefs; the former may on occasion be a necessary condition for the latter, but are rarely a sufficient one: an athlete may wish to triumph in an event with every fibre of his being, but that will not necessarily generate a belief that he can do so, much less the delusion that he has done so.

Thus, even if it is true that there is a universal wish for a Cosmic father, it is implausible to suggest that such a wish is a sufficient condition for religious belief and the complex practices and value systems associated with it Kai-man Kwan Further, as Alvin Plantinga — argues, in the absence of compelling empirical evidence to support the view that such a universal wish exists, Freud was left with no option but to contend that such wishes are equally universally repressed into the unconscious, a move which opens his theory to the accusation of being empirically untestable Plantinga , It is to be noted too that concerns about anthropomorphisms in religious language are in no way restricted to religious skeptics: apophatic or negative theology, for example, grew out of recognition of the logical difficulties implicit in attempts to express the nature of the divine in language.

It is also important to note that some proponents of the projection theory, such as Spinoza and possibly Xenophanes, saw the projection theory as invalidating only those forms of religious belief which are anthropotheistic in nature. Thus projectionism, so far from being hostile to all forms of religious belief and practice, is in fact consistent with themes relating to the avoidance of idolatry long central to the Abrahamic religions in particular, as evidenced in the proscription on naming God in Judaism and in aniconism, the prohibition of figurative representations of the Divine in the early Orthodox Church, in Calvinism and also in Islam Thornton, It is thus perfectly consistent to accept projectionism as an account of religious concept formation without thereby repudiating religious belief.

Indeed, the logical compatibility of projectionism with religious belief has led some contemporary religious thinkers to go so far as to embrace projectionism as a condition of a reflective religious commitment. This argument is closely paralleled by a suggestion from Plantinga that wish-fulfillment as a mechanism could have arisen out of a divinely created human constitution.

For while it may not, in general, be the function of wish-fulfillment to produce true belief, that in itself does not rule out the possibility, Plantinga contends—at least for those who believe in God—that humans have been so constituted by the creator to have a deeply-felt need and wish to believe in him. Whatever level of plausibility may be assigned to these views, it is in any case clear that the projection theory is also reflective of the difficulties which certain forms of religious discourse generate: the characterization of God as possessing attributes such as Love and Wisdom, however qualified such attributions may be, seems invariably to invite the kind of challenge that is found in Feuerbach, Freud and even in Durkheim.

In that sense, the projection theory highlights deep theological and philosophical issues relating to the nature and meaning of religious language. An application of this to religious discourse implies that the latter cannot be understood in isolation from the broad web of cultural practices, beliefs and concerns in which it is imbedded and from which it derives its meaning.

This suggests that concerns that skeptical conclusions necessarily follow from our use of human-being predicates in speaking about the Divine are misguided; such concerns gain credence only when accompanied by the deeply pervasive, but uncritical, philosophical assumption—clearly evident in Freud—that the attributions of anthropomorphic predicates to God are to be understood exclusively as factual descriptions of a particular kind, an assumption which is at the very least gratuitous. Are eyebrows going to be talked of, in connection with the Eye of God?

The nature of totemism

The occurrence of anthropomorphisms in religious discourse, then, does not in itself necessitate the acceptance of anthropotheistic conclusions. Not alone did it contest the orthodox Biblical narrative of the role of Moses in the history of Judaism, it did so at a time when the Jews of Europe were threatened with complete annihilation. Though Moses is almost certainly an Egyptian name, the evidence that Moses was an Egyptian is not conclusive and it has also been suggested that his life was not in fact contemporaneous with that of Amenhotep IV Banks , In a thinker as complex as Freud, these approaches can neither be taken as exhaustive nor as entirely mutually exclusive, as significant textual evidence can be invoked for all three.

What seems evident, at any rate, is that Freud was seeking, at that critical point in Jewish history, to affirm his cultural and intellectual indebtedness to the ethical basis of the religion of his forefathers while simultaneously seeking to demonstrate that the validity of that ethic is not contingent upon the Biblical and theological accretions traditionally associated with it. On such a reading, the question of the accuracy of the historical detail in the Freudian narrative becomes as peripheral as it is—on a non-literal interpretation—to that of the Biblical one.

Stephen Thornton Email: sfthornton eircom. Sigmund Freud: Religion This article explores attempts by Sigmund Freud to provide a naturalistic account of religion enhanced by insights and theoretical constructs derived from the discipline of psychoanalysis which he had pioneered. Lamarckian vs. In part, the verse ran: Son who is dear to me, Shelomoh. Religion and Civilization In time Freud came to consider that the account which he had given in Totem and Taboo did not fully address the issue of the origins of developed religion, the human needs which religion is designed to meet and, consequently, the psychological motivations underpinning religious belief.

The Moses Narrative: The Origins of Judaic Monotheism In , while exiled in Britain and suffering from the throat cancer which was to lead to his death, Freud published his final and most controversial work, Moses and Monotheism. Myth or Science?


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  • The Primordial Religion: Polytheism or Monotheism? The Projection Theory of Religion This raises the whole question of the intellectual plausibility of the projection theory of religion. In a similar vein, Jan Assmann sees Freud as continuing the more general task, initiated by Baruch Spinoza — , of combating monotheism and undoing the negative values, such as intolerance, religious hatred and the configuration of alternative religions as idolatrous, generated by the absolute conception of truth which monotheistic religions seem to require. Finally, there is the semi-autobiographical approach, largely taken in this article, which sees the text as primarily concerned with the long-standing problem for Freud of resolving his personal father complex.

    References and Further Reading a. References Alter, R. University of Washington Press. Assmann, J. Banks, R. Religious Studies , vol. Berke, J. London: Karnac Books. Bernstein, R. Freud and the Legacy of Moses. Cambridge: University Press. Boehlich, W. Harvard University Press. Brentano, F. Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint trans. Rancurello, D. Terrell and L. London: Routledge. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. Darwin, C. Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex.

    Princeton University Press. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life trans. Karen Fields. New York: Free Press. Feuerbach, L. The Essence of Christianity , 2nd edition trans. George Eliot. Frazer, J. The Golden Bough. New York: Dover Publications. Freud, S. The Psychopathology of Everyday Life trans. London: T. Fisher Unwin. Moses and Monotheism trans. Katherine Jones. Strachey Volume X1 Volume XX The Future of an Illusion trans. James Strachey.

    New York; W. Civilization and its Discontents trans. Strachey Volume IX James Strachey Volume IX Moussaieff Masson. New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis trans. New York: W. Oxford: Routledge Classics. New York: Basic Books. Friedman, R. Religious Studies , 34 2 , Gay, Peter. A Godless Jew? Freud, Atheism and the Making of Psychoanalysis. The Jewish Quarterly Review , Vol. Green, G. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gresser, M. Dual Allegiance: Freud as a Modern Jew.

    The Foundations of Psychoanalysis. Berkeley: University of California Press. Hume, D. The Natural History of Religion ed. London: A. Jones, E. Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press. Freud: Collected Papers in 5 Volumes trans. Joan Riviere. Kai-man Kwan. Critical Essays on the Work of Lloyd Geering. Kenny, R. Notes and records of the Royal Society of London. Jun 20; 69 2 : — Kroeber, A. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Social Origins and Primal Law. London: Longmans Green. Parsons, W. Paul, R. Plantinga, A. Warranted Christian Belief.


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    • Oxford University Press. Popper, K. Rice, E. Ricoeur, P. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation trans. Saarinen, J. Der Ursprung der Gottesidee: Eine historisch-kritische und positive Studie. Slavet, E. Racial Fever: Freud and the Jewish Question. Fordham University Press. Richards ed. Smith, R.