Manual Non-US Electrodynamic Launchers Research and Development

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Analytical canister wall temperatures compared very favorably with experimental temperature data. This illustrates that ground-based canister thermal performance can be predicted well by analyses that employ straight-forward, engineering models of void behavior and liquid PCM free convection.

Future launchers strategy : the ariane initiative. Current Arianespace projections for the following years indicate two major trends: satellites may still become larger and may require very different final orbits; today's market largely dominated by GEO may well evolve, influenced by LEO operations such as those linked to ISS or by constellations, to remain competitive, the launch cost has to be reduced.

The future generation of the European heavy launcher has therefore to focus on an ever increased flexibility with a drastic cost reduction. To achieve these very ambitious goals, numerous major modifications are studied: technical improvements : modifications of the Solid Rocket Boosters may consist in filament winding casing, increased loading, simplified casting, improved grain, simplified Thrust Vector Control, … evolution of the Vulcain engine leading to higher efficiency despite a simplified design, flow separation controlled nozzle extension, propellant management of the two cryogenic stages, simplified electrical system, increased standardization, for instance on flanged interfaces and manufacturing processes, operational improvements such as launch cycle simplification.

Future launcher demonstrator. Challenge and pathfinder. For future and advanced launch vehicles emphasis is focused on single-stage-to-orbit SSTO concepts and on completely reusable versions with the goal to reduce the recurrent launch cost, to improve the mission success probability and also safety for the space transportation of economically attractive payloads into Low Earth Orbit.

Both issues, the SSTO launcher and the low cost reusability are extremely challenging and cannot be proven by studies and on-ground tests alone. In-flight demonstration tests are required to verify the assumptions and the new technologies, and to justify the new launcher -and operations-concepts. Because a number of SSTO launch vehicles are currently under discussion in terms of configurations and concepts such as winged vehicles for vertical or horizontal launch and landing from ground or a flying platform , or wingless vehicles for vertical take-off and landing, and also in terms of propulsion pure rockets or a combination of air breathing and rocket engines , an experimental demonstrator vehicle appears necessary in order to serve as a pathfinder in this area of multiple challenges.

This is a multipurpose, evolutionary demonstrator, conceived around a modular approach of incremental improvements of subsystems and materials, to achieve a better propellant mass fraction i. While the RRLD basic test programme will acquire knowledge about hypersonic flight, re-entry and landing of a cryogenic rocket propelled launcher — and the low cost reusability short turnaround on ground in the utilization programme beyond basic testing, the RRLD will serve as a test bed for generic testing of technologies required for the realization of an SSTO launcher.

The purpose of this facility description document FDD is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility CHF , which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers.

It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process. Preparations are underway to lift a vehicle support post up and onto the mobile launcher for installation on the deck.

A total of eight support posts will be installed to support the load of the Space Launch System's SLS solid rocket boosters, with four posts for each of the boosters. The support posts are about five feet tall and each weigh about 10, pounds. The posts will structurally support the SLS rocket through T-0 and liftoff, and will drop down before vehicle liftoff to avoid contact with the flight hardware.

The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of the support posts to prepare for the launch of the Orion spacecraft atop the SLS rocket. Three-phase hypervelocity projectile launcher. A hypervelocity projectile launcher for use in perforating borehole casings provides improved penetration into the surrounding rock structure. The launcher includes a first cylinder of explosive material that defines an axial air-filled cavity, a second cylinder of explosive material defining an axial frustum-shaped cavity abutting and axially aligned with the first cylinder.

A pliant washer is located between and axially aligned with the first and second cylinders. The frustum shaped cavity is lined with a metal liner effective to form a projectile when the first and second cylinders are detonated. The washer forms a unique intermediate projectile in advance of the liner projectile and enables the liner projectile to further penetrate into and fracture the adjacent rock structure. Electromagnetic Launchers and Guns. Phase 1. In Gerard K. There are three comparable options for energy storage: an engine-driven homopolar generator followed by an.

Characterization of the Electrostatic Environment of Launchers. The purpose of this study was to update knowledge in characterization of the electrostatic environment of launchers in order to be able to propose reductions of design constraints. The first part of this study showed that flashover discharges are the most energetic discharges likely to occur on a launcher. They are mostly due to accumulations of charges by triboelectricity on the external surface of the launcher while flying through clouds containing a lot of small solid particles. Actually flashover discharges are mitigated by limiting the surface's resistance of dielectric materials such as thermal protection set on the external skin of the launcher , thanks to antistatic paints that avoid significant accumulations of charges.

But this specified limitation leads to a lot of non- conformances during production phases and, as a result, this leads to additional costs and delays in launches campaigns. That is why on-ground tests have been defined in order to assess the accessibility of a relaxation of those specifications, which would reduce non-conformances. On-ground tests have been carried out, in the second part, on samples of thermal protections covered with antistatic paints with different degraded values of surface resistance.

These tests aimed at checking in which conditions a surface discharge can occur in order to deduce a relationship between characteristics of the samples surface resistance, half-discharge time and the occurrence of a surface discharge, at ambient pressure and at low pressure. In the third part, in-flight experiments have been defined in order to confirm some hypotheses considered in the study and to assess some parameters in a more accurate way like the incoming charges density per surface unit or the voltage between stages when they get separated, in order to assess more accurately whether the unwinding equalization wire dedicated to maintain the electrostatic balance between stages is necessary or not.

Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher. Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U. Army attack helicopters. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency.

Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1]. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher 's Applications. In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles LV production, due to the growth of competition worldwide.

It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM Additive Layer Manufacturing could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.

Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers , reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration. This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.

This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

Photographic copy of photograph, view of rail launcher used for Photocopy of 35mm photograph made in December , looking west with Test Stand 'A' immediately behind the rail launcher. Multirail electromagnetic launcher powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator. Afonin, A. The operation of an electromagnetic multirail launcher of solids powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic MHD generator is studied. The plasma flow in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the possibility of launching solids in a rapid-fire mode of launcher operation are considered.

It is shown that this mode of launcher operation can be implemented by matching the plasma flow dynamics in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the launching conditions. It is also shown that powerful pulsed MHD generators can be used as a source of electrical energy for rapid-fire electromagnetic rail launchers operating in a burst mode.

Inspecting a Canister and Sample Collector. Payload canister transporter in VPF clean room. The objective of this procedure is to collect a representative sample of air containing volatile organic compound VOC contaminants present in an indoor environment using an evacuated canister , and to subsequently analyze the concentration of VOCs, as selected by EPA.

NASA's Exploration Ground Systems organization has been overseeing installation of umbilicals and other launch accessories on the foot-tall ML in preparation for stacking the first launch of the Space launch System, or SLS, rocket with an Orion spacecraft. The CAA is designed to rotate from its retracted position and line up with Orion's crew hatch providing entry for astronauts and technicians. Viewed from the foot level mobile launcher ML , a technician begins installation of the Orion crew access arm CAA to the tower.

NASA's Exploration Ground Systems organization has been overseeing installation of umbilicals and other launch accessories on the foot-tall ML in preparation for stacking the first launch of the SLS, rocket with an Orion spacecraft. NASA's Exploration Ground Systems organization has been overseeing installation of umbilicals and other launch accessories on the foot-tall ML in preparation for stacking the first launch of the Space launch System SLS , rocket with an Orion spacecraft.

The arm is installed at about the foot level on the ML tower. A total of eight support posts are being installed to support the load of the Space Launch System's SLS solid rocket boosters, with four posts for each of the boosters. The posts will structurally support the SLS rocket through T-0 and liftoff. The arm will be installed at about the foot level on the ML tower. New coplanar waveguide to rectangular waveguide end launcher. A new coplanar waveguide to rectangular waveguide end launcher is experimentally demonstrated.

The measured insertion loss and return loss are better than 0. The mobile launcher is designed to support the assembly, testing and check-out of the agency's Space Launch System SLS rocket and the Orion spacecraft. Impact of Launchers on the Environment in French Guiana. The main combustion products of the Ariane 5 solid rocket boosters are alumina and chlorhyde gas.

When the launcher lift off the significant concentrations of this components are around the launch zone. We use samplers to evaluate the concentrations of this two elements. To optimize the localisation of the samplers we use a model to obtain the projected traces of the combustion cloud according to meteorological data software sarrim. During the first seconds of takes m3 of water flood the base right to decrease the acoustic vibration.

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The major parts of the pollutants fall close to the launch zone and acidic cloud is formed. Once having stabilized the cloud begins diluting, it is subjected to the influence of the different layers of wind. To measure air quality we use first continuous analysers, secondly containers with distilled water to sample the acidic particles from the cloud. We also monitor the physicochemical quality of water in a river near the launch zone, the impact of the combustion products on vegetation, the aquatic fauna. Noise and vibrations are also measured. For terrestrial fauna like birds, we monitor the general population and a colony of wade.

We use also a new protocol to estimate the impact of launch by measuring the thickness of eggshells. We use research results which show that calcium can be replaced by alumina. When the thickness of eggshells is thin, the reproduction can be affected. For each measurement campaign, we have more than sites and around samples. The results shows that the land around the space centre is like a natural refuge. The impact of the launches is low, hunting is forbidden and security personal controls the zone base is a protected zone.

The space centre is now a natural wildlife refuge. For the two new launchers , Vega and Soyuz, we will also monitor the environmental impact of the launch. These new technologies are expected to improve performance and to lower cost of development and exploitation of the launcher.

Although the first targeted application is the thrust frame, the developed technologies are set to be generic in the sense that they can be applied to other structures of the launcher , e. This paper addresses the design, analysis, manufacturing and testing activities related to the composite technology developments.

The objective of the work reported herein was to determine the ability of the Multi- Canister Overpack MCO canister design to maintain its containment boundary after an accidental drop event. In addition to the actual testing efforts, finite element plastic analysis techniques were used to make both pre-test and post-test predictions of the test MCOs structural deformations.

The effort has also demonstrated the capability of finite element methods using plastic analysis techniques to accurately predict the structural deformations of canisters subjected to an accidental drop event. A launcher is composed of structures propellant reservoirs for example Its D mass W,is concentrated on the ECK, M. Non-US electrodynamic launchers research and development.

Electrodynamic launcher research and development work of scientists outside the United States is analyzed and assessed by six internationally recognized US experts in the field of electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers. The assessment covers five broad technology areas: 1 Experimental railguns; 2 Railgun theory and design; 3 Induction launchers ; 4 Electrothermal guns; 5 Energy storage and power supplies. The overall conclusion is that non-US work on electrodynamic launchers is maturing rapidly after a relatively late start in many countries.

Until recently, published Russian work focused on hypervelocity for research purposes. Within the last two years, large facilities have been described where military-oriented development has been underway since the mids. Financial support for these large facilities appears to have collapsed, leaving no effective effort to develop practical launchers for military or civilian applications.

Electrodynamic launcher research in Europe is making rapid progress by focusing on a single application, tactical launchers for the military. Four major laboratories, in Britain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, are working on this problem.

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Though narrower in scope than the US effort, the European work enjoys a continuity of support that has accelerated its progress. The next decade will see the deployment of electrodynamic launcher technology, probably in the form of an electrothermal-chemical upgrade for an existing gun system. The time scale for deployment of electromagnetic launchers is entirely dependent on the level of research-and-development effort. If resources remain limited, the advantage will lie with cooperative efforts that have reasonably stable funding such as the present French-German program. A coaxial radial opening switch for a distributed-energy-store rail launcher.

The design, fabrication, and initial testing results for a coaxial radial opening switch for a distributed-energy-store rail launcher are presented. In this nonarcing switch, the voltage needed to transfer current to the rail launcher is generated in a fixed resistor sized to absorb the energy required to accomplish the switching. The coaxial geometry consisting of concentric rings allowed flexibility in defining the conductive and resistive portions of the switch, and also provided tight coupling by minimizing the inductance of the current path between the charging path and the load path to minimize the energy absorption requirements.

The resistive portion of the switch is composed of a series of stacked circular steel ring laminations. Switching is completed in three intervals through radial actuation. The switch parts were machined from ETP electrical tough pitch copper plate, series aluminum plate, and close-tolerance standed GFR epoxy.

Non-US Electrodynamic Launchers Research and Development

Current may be transferred at levels less than 20 kA. Construction workers on the deck of the mobile launcher at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, prepare a platform for installation of a vehicle support post. A construction worker on the deck of the mobile launcher welds a portion of a platform for installation of a vehicle support post at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher. Non-Rocket Missile Rope Launcher. The method, installation, and estimation for delivering payload and missiles into outer space are presented.

This method uses, in general, the engines and straight or closed-loop cables disposed on a planet surface. The installation consists of a space apparatus, power drive stations located along trajectory of the apparatus, the cables connected to the apparatus and to the power stations, a system for suspending the cable, and disconnected device.

The drive stations accelerate the apparatus up to hypersonic speed. The estimations and computations show the possibility of making these projects a reality in a short period of time see attached project: launcher for missiles and loads. We need only light strong cable, which can be made from artificial fibers, whiskers, nanotubes, which exist in industry and scientific laboratories. Construction workers on the deck of the mobile launcher prepare the platforms for installation of vehicle support posts at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At left, four of the support posts are installed.

SHELS consists of a Marman band clamp push-plate ejection system mounted to a launch structure; the launch structure is mounted to one Orbiter sidewall adapter beam. Avionics mounted to the adapter beam will interface with Orbiter electrical services and provide optional umbilical services and ejection circuitry. SHELS provides an array of manifesting possibilities to a wide range of satellites.

Robotic weather balloon launchers spread in Alaska. Last week, things began stirring inside the truck-size box that sat among melting piles of snow at the airport in Fairbanks, Alaska. Before long, the roof of the box yawned open and a weather balloon took off into the sunny afternoon, instruments dangling. The entire launch was triggered with the touch of a button, 5 kilometers away at an office of the National Weather Service NWS. The flight was smooth, just one of hundreds of twice-daily balloon launches around the world that radio back crucial data for weather forecasts.

But most of those balloons are launched by people; the robotic launchers , which are rolling out across Alaska, are proving to be controversial. NWS says the autolaunchers will save money and free up staff to work on more pressing matters. But representatives of the employee union question their reliability, and say they will hasten the end of Alaska's remote weather offices, where forecasting duties and hours have already been slashed.

The microspace launcher : first step to the fully air-breathing space launcher. A possible application for the high-speed air-breathing propulsion is the fully or partially reusable space launcher. Indeed, by combining the high-speed air-breathing propulsion with a conventional rocket engine combined cycle or combined propulsion system , it should be possible to improve the average installed specific impulse along the ascent trajectory and then make possible more performing launchers and, hopefully, a fully reusable one.

During the last 15 years, a lot of system studies have been performed in France on that subject within the framework of different and consecutive programs. Nevertheless, these studies never clearly demonstrated that a space launcher could take advantage of using a combined propulsion system. During last years, the interest to air-breathing propulsion for space application has been revisited.

During this review and taking into account technologies development activities already in progress in Europe, clear priorities have been identified regarding a minimum complementary research and technology program addressing specific needs of space launcher application. In that field, a fully axisymmetric configuration has been considered for a microspace launcher 10 kg payload. The vehicle is based on a main stage powered by air-breathing propulsion, combined or not with liquid rocket mode. A "kick stage," powered by a solid rocket engine provides the final acceleration. A preliminary design has been performed for different variants: one using a separated booster and a purely air-breathing main stage, a second one using a booster and a main stage combining air-breathing and rocket mode, a third one without separated.

Hot spots were observed on objects intercepting the field lines passing in front of the LH launcher , i. The dumplate temperature was monitored while scanning the launcher position so that the radial distance between field lines intercepting the hot spots and the launcher was increased up to 3.

Computational model for simulation small testing launcher , technical solution. Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel, E-mail: teodor. The purpose of this paper is to present some aspects regarding the computational model and technical solutions for multistage suborbital launcher for testing SLT used to test spatial equipment and scientific measurements. The computational model consists in numerical simulation of SLT evolution for different start conditions. The launcher model presented will be with six degrees of freedom 6DOF and variable mass. The results analysed will be the flight parameters and ballistic performances.

The discussions area will focus around the technical possibility to realize a small multi-stage launcher , by recycling military rocket motors. Therefore, while classical suborbital sounding rockets are unguided and they use as propulsion solid fuel motor having an uncontrolled ballistic flight, SLT project is introducing a different approach, by proposing the creation of a guided suborbital launcher , which is basically a satellite launcher at a smaller scale, containing its main subsystems. This is why the project itself can be considered an intermediary step in the development of a wider range of launching systems based on hybrid propulsion technology, which may have a major impact in the future European launchers programs.

SLT project, as it is shown in the title, has two major objectives: first, a short term objective, which consists in obtaining a suborbital launching system which will be able to go into service in a predictable period of time, and a long term objective that consists in the development and testing of some unconventional sub-systems which will be integrated later in the satellite launcher as a part of the European space program.

This is why the technical content of the project must be carried out beyond the range of the existing suborbital. From technical point of view, the paper is focused on national project "Suborbital Launcher for Testing" SLT , which is based on hybrid propulsion and control systems, obtained through an original design. This is why the technical content of the project must be carried out beyond the range of the existing suborbital vehicle. Examining the role of canister cooling conditions on the formation of nepheline from nuclear waste glasses.

Formation of these crystals can adversely affect the chemical durability of the glass. Progress in the understanding of the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters. The environment will evolve with time as the initially trapped atmospheric O2 is consumed and as the canister cools. This evolution can be described as a transition from an early period of warm, oxidising conditions to an indefinite period of cool, anoxic conditions. In turn, this environmental evolution will impact the corrosion behaviour of the canister. Localised corrosion and stress corrosion cracking SCC will only be possible for a limited period of time initially when there is sufficient oxidant available to support these forms of corrosion.

This aerobic phase is only expected to last a few tens or hundreds of years [10,11]. For the vast majority of the service life of the canister , the redox conditions will be determined by the absence of O2 and the presence of sulphide. Although obvious, it is important to remember that the corrosion behaviour is determined by the environmental conditions at the canister surface. Because of the presence of the compacted bentonite, the environment at the canister surface will be quite different from that in the ground water in the rock. In particular, the interfacial concentration of HS- will be small as the rate of corrosion in the presence of sulphide is transport limited [1,2,12].

The low interfacial [HS-] has important implications for various sulphur-related corrosion mechanisms. The relatively high salinity of the ground water and, hence, of the bentonite pore water promotes the general dissolution of copper and inhibits localised corrosion and SCC [5,6]. Groundwork for Universal Canister System Development. The mission of the United States Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and go vernment - sponsored nuclear energy re search.

S ome of the waste s that that must be managed have be en identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock SNL a. In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. This report provides information for a program plan for developing specifications regarding a canister - based system that facilitates small waste form packaging and disposal and that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy Used Fuel Dis position Camp aign's Deep Borehole Field Test.

Groundwork for Universal Ca nister System Development September ii W astes to be considered as candidates for the universal canister system include capsules containing cesium and strontium currently stored in pools at the Hanford Site, cesium to be processed using elutable or nonelutable resins at the Hanford Site, and calcine waste from Idaho National Laboratory. The initial emphasis will be on disposal of the cesium and strontium capsules in a deep borehole that has been drilled into crystalline rock. Specifications for a universal canister system are derived from operational, performance, and regulatory requirements for storage, transfers, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste.

Agreements between the Department of Energy and the States of Washington and Idaho, as well as the Deep Borehole Field Test plan provide schedule requirements for development of the universal canister system. Commercial space development needs cheap launchers. There is an ongoing debate about the elasticity of demand related to launch costs. On the other hand are commercial companies which compete in the real world, and who say that there would be innumerable new launches if prices were to drop dramatically.

I participated directly in the microcomputer revolution, and saw first hand what happened to the big iron computer companies who failed to see or heed the handwriting on the wall. We are at the same stage in the space access revolution that personal computers were in the late '70s and early '80s. The global economy is about to be changed in ways that are just as unpredictable as those changes wrought after the introduction of the personal computer. Companies which fail to innovate and keep producing only big iron will suffer the same fate as IBM and all the now-extinct mainframe and minicomputer companies.

A few will remain, but with a small share of the market, never again to be in a position to dominate. Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode ELM pacing and mitigation.

Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution.

This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios. Sharp and the Jules Verne Launcher. Some of the results of the scramjet tests are enlightening and are presented insofar as they are relevant to future launches into space. Using a light gas gun to launch payloads into orbit has been analyzed.

The JVL can deliver 3. We anticipate one launch per day. Another section is devoted to the vehicle environment and resultant design. Lastly, we present a cost analysis. This technology will enable the next phase of man's exploration of space. Calibrating Accelerometers Using an Electromagnetic Launcher. The PFN has a maximum stored energy of The HEML is constructed out of G fiberglass and is designed to accelerate grams to 10 meters per second. The CM is microcontroller based running Arduino Software.

The CM has a keypad input and 7 segment outputs of the bank voltage and desired voltage. The Target is held with the vacuum chuck awaiting impact. After impact, the air bearing allows the target to fall freely for the velocity meter to get an accurate reading. A known acceleration is determined from the known change in velocity of the target. Thus, if an accelerometer was attached to the target, the measured value can be compared to the known value.

The Genesis science canister is an aluminum cylinder 75 cm diameter and 35 cm tall hinged at the mid-line for opening. The clean solar collectors were installed and the canister closed in the cleanroom to preserve collector cleanliness. The canister remained closed until opened on station at Earth-Sun L1 for solar wind collection. At the conclusion of collection, the canister was again closed to preserve collector cleanliness during Earth return and re-entry. Upon impacting the dry Utah lakebed at kph the science canister integrity was breached.

The canister was returned to JSC. The canister shell was briefly examined, imaged, gently cleaned of dust and packaged for storage in anticipation of future detailed examination. The condition of the science canister shell noted during this brief examination is presented here. The canister interior components were packaged and stored without imaging due to time constraints. Radioactive liquid waste from five decades of weapons production is slated for vitrification at the Hanford site. The waste will be mixed with glass forming additives and heated to a high temperature, then poured into canisters within a pour cave where the glass will cool and solidify into a stable waste form for disposal.

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Computer simulations were performed to predict the heat rejected from the canisters and the temperatures within the glass during cooling. Four different waste glass compositions with different thermophysical properties were evaluated. Mesh-matrix analysis method for electromagnetic launchers.

The mesh-matrix method is a procedure for calculating the current distribution in the conductors of electromagnetic launchers with coil or flat-plate geometry. Once the current distribution is known the launcher performance can be calculated. The method divides the conductors into parallel current paths, or meshes, and finds the current in each mesh by matrix inversion. The author presents procedures for writing equations for the current and voltage relations for a few meshes to serve as a pattern for writing the computer code.

An available subroutine package provides routines for field and flux coefficients and equation solution. Metal vapor vacuum arc switching - Applications and results. The design of metal-vapor vacuum-arc switches MVSs for electromagnetic launchers is discussed, and preliminary results are presented for an experimental MVS. The general principles of triggered-vacuum-gap and vacuum-interrupter MVSs are reviewed, and the requirements of electromagnetic launchers are analyzed.

High-current design problems such as electrode erosion, current sharing, magnetic effects, and thermal effects are examined. The experimental MVS employs stainless-steel flanges, a glass vacuum vessel, an adjustable electrode gap, autonomous internal magnetic-field coils, and a tungsten-pin trigger assembly.

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  8. Some results from tests without magnetic augmentation are presented graphically. The Defense Waste Processing Facility DWPF is considering the option to increase canister glass capacity by reducing the wall thickness of the current production canister. A significant decrease in the number of canisters processed during the life of the facility would be achieved if the HCC were implemented leading to a reduced overall reduction in life cycle costs.

    Additionally, the effect of the reduced wall thickness on corrosion and material compatibility needed to be addressed. Finally the integrity of the canister during decontamination and other handling steps needed to be determined. The initial request regarding canister fabrication was later addressed in an alternate study.

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    A preliminary review of canister requirements and previous testing was conducted prior to determining the testing approach. Thermal and stress models were developed to predict the forces on the canister during the pouring and cooling process. The thermal model shows the HCC increasing and decreasing in temperature at a slightly faster rate than the original. The stress model indicates strain values ranging from 1.

    These values are dependent on the glass level relative to the thickness transition between the top head and the canister wall. This information, along with field readings, was used to set up environmental test conditions for corrosion studies. Small L canisters were filled with glass and subjected to accelerated environmental testing for 3 months. The Biological Research in Canisters BRIC is an anodized-aluminum cylinder used to provide passive stowage for investigations of the effects of space flight on small specimens.

    The top and bottom lids of the canister include rapid disconnect valves for filling the canister with selected gases. These specialized valves allow for specific atmospheric containment within the canister , providing a gaseous environment defined by the investigator. Additionally, the top lid has been designed with a toggle latch and O-ring assembly allowing for prompt sealing and removal of the lid.

    The lower portion of the canister has been equipped with sufficient storage space for passive temperature and relative humidity data loggers. Depending on storage orientation, up to 6 or 9 canisters have been flown within an International Space Station ISS stowage locker. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report. Note launchers , an instructor-designed reading guide, model how to select, decide, and focus upon what textbook material is important to learn.

    Reading guides are specially-designed study aids that can steer students through difficult parts of assigned readings Bean, while encouraging advance preparation. As an example of a reading guide,…. The article offers information on making technology education students interested in science and mathematics through the use of a T-shirt launcher design project.

    This project was designed for junior and senior level high school students who have completed or are currently taking physics and precalculus. The project involves designing an…. Wernher Von Braun near the mobile launcher. Wernher Von Braun right , director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, are seen near the mobile launcher carrying a foot tall Saturn V space launch vehicle as the rocket is rolled from the vehicle assembly building at KSC for its three mile trip to the launch pad.

    Photocopy of drawing of missile launcher from 'Procedures and Energy stores and switches for rail- launcher systems. An overview of existing switch and power supply technology applicable to space launch, a new candidate pulsed power supply for Earth-to-space rail launcher duty, the inverse railgun flux compressor, and a set of switching experiments to study further the feasibility of Earth-to-space launch are discussed.

    Feasibility study of superconducting LSM rocket launcher system. A feasibility study is presented concerning an application of a superconducting linear synchronous motor LSM to a large-scale rocket launcher , whose acceleration guide tube of LSM armature windings is constructed 1, meters under the ground. The rocket is released from the linear launcher just after it gets to a peak speed of about kilometers per hour, and it flies out of the guide tube to obtain the speed of kilometers per hour at the height of meters above ground. The linear launcher is brought to a stop at the ground surface for a very short time of 5 seconds by a quick control of deceleration.

    Very large current variations in the single-layer windings of the LSM armature, which are produced at the higher speed region of to kilometers per hour, are controlled successfully by adopting the double-layer windings. The proposed control method makes the rocket launcher ascend stably in the superconducting LSM system, controlling the Coriolis force. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences.

    The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work.

    The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and.

    Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition. Technical data and performance characteristics of a high level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository are presented. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high level waste product that is produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant.

    Development history is summarized for high level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FTPN to report on a radiolysis computer model analysis that estimates the generation of radiolytic products for a storage canister. The analysis considers radiolysis outside storage canister walls and within the canister fill gas over a possible year lifetime. Previous work relied on estimates based directly on a water radiolysis G-value.

    This work also includes that effect with the addition of coupled kinetics for reactions for 40 gas species to account for radiolytic-induced chemistry, which includes water recombination and reactions with air. The Energy Department has asked the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to waive double containment requirements for vitrified high-level radioactive waste canisters , saying the additional protection is not necessary and too costly.

    NRC said it had received a petition from DOE contending that the vitrified waste canisters were durable enough without double containment to prevent any potential plutonium release during handling and shipping. DOE said testing had shown that the vitrified waste canisters were similar - even superior - in durability to spent reactor fuel shipments, which NRC specifically exempted from the double containment requirement.

    E Shop and Launcher Pictures. Development of explosively driven launcher for meteoroid studies. Previous efforts had identified incomplete barrel collapse as a limiting factor in launcher performance. Correlation of experimental and computational results obtained in the present study indicate that boundary-layer gases within the barrel act to prevent complete closure. Simplified calculations suggest that in-contact explosives may have insufficient energy densities to collapse the barrel against a developed boundary layer. Higher energy densities, sufficient to produce complete closure, were obtained with the use of steel flyer plates accelerated by a phased explosive lens.

    However, when flat flyer plates were impacted on the barrel, the sides of the barrel were observed to rupture and leak gas prior to barrel closure. A promising solution to this problem untested is to produce a symmetrical collapse with a cylindrical tube around the barrel. The umbilical will be located at about the foot-level of the mobile launcher and will supply fuel, oxidizer, gaseous helium, hazardous gas leak detection, electrical commodities and environment control systems to the upper stage of the SLS rocket during launch.

    In order to investigate the general area of ultra-high-current density, high-velocity sliding contacts as applied to electromagnetic launcher armatures, a small experimental launcher , ELF-I, has been developed, and preliminary experiments have been performed. The system uses a 36 kJ, 5 kV capacitor bank as a primary pulse power source.

    When used in conjunction with a 5-microhenry pulse conditioning coil, a kA peak current and ms-wide pulse is obtained. A three-station kV flash X-ray system is operational for obtaining in-bore photographs of the projectiles. Coal desorption techniques typically use the U. However, the coal desorption canister designs historically used with this method have an inherent flaw that allows a significant gas-filled headspace bubble to remain in the canister that later has to be compensated for by correcting the measured desorbed gas volume with a mathematical headspace volume correction McLennan and others, ; Mavor and Nelson, Optimization of the propulsion for multistage solid rocket motor launchers.

    Some tools focused on a rapid multidisciplinary optimization capability for multistage launch vehicle design were developed at EADS-LV. These tools may be broken down into two categories, those related to propulsion design optimization and a computer code devoted to trajectories and under constraints optimization. Both are linked in order to obtain optimal vehicle design after an iterative process. After a description of the two categories tools, an example of application is given on a small space launcher.

    Modeling the capillary discharge of an electrothermal ET launcher. Over the past few decades, different branches of the US Department of Defense DoD have invested at improving the field ability of electromagnetic launchers. It has been shown that pre-injection is required for this to be achieved.

    One method of pre-injection which has promise involves using an electro-thermal ET due to its ability to achieve the desired velocities with a minimal amount of hot plasma injected into the launcher behind the projectile. Despite the demonstration of pre-injection using this method, polymer ablation is not very well known and this makes it challenging to predict how the system will behave for a given input of electrical power. In this work, the rate of ablation has been studied and predicted using different models to generate the best possible characteristic curve.

    Parker, and Ian R. IEEE Xplore.

    CCDC Armaments Center | Federal Labs

    Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications. A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna.

    Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies.

    An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system.

    Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report. Witherspoon to E. The Study goals include: improve launcher system and other space system parametric cost analysis accuracy; improve launcher system and other space system cost analysis credibility; and provide launcher system and technology development program managers and other decisionmakers with useful information on development cost impacts of their decisions.

    The Working Group plans to explore at least the following five areas in the Study: define and explain development cost behavior terms and concepts for use in the Study; identify and quantify sources of development cost and cost estimating uncertainty; identify and quantify significant influences on development cost behavior; identify common barriers to development cost understanding and reduction; and recommend practical, realistic strategies to accomplish reductions in launcher system development cost.

    Preliminary advanced studies were performed recently to select the possible concepts for a launcher that could succeed to Ariane 5. During the end of Space Ministry Conference, a configuration defining the propellant of the stages and the coarse staging "PPH" was frozen in order to engage the preliminary selection concept studies. The first phase consisted to select the main features of the architecture in order to go deeper in the different matters or the advanced studies.

    The concept was selected mid of During all these phases of the preliminary project, different criteria such as the recurring cost which is a major one were used to quote the different concepts, among which the "payload comfort", ie the minimization of the environment generated by the launcher toward the satellites. The minimization of the environment was first expressed in term of objectives in the Mission Requirement Document MRD for the different mechanical environment such as quasi-static loads, dynamic loads, acoustics, shocks Criteria such as usable volume, satellites frequency requirement and interface requirement are also expressed in the MRD.

    The definition of these different criteria was of course fixed taking benefit from the launcher operator experience based on a long story of dealing with spacecraft- launcher interface issues on Ariane, Soyouz and Vega. The payload consists of four small technology demonstrations kg to study how spacecraft electronics respond to space radiation.


    A microsatellite of 86 kg. Four different components of the Falcon Heavy will follow trajectories toward different landing zones, or toward Earth orbit image credit: SpaceX. The STP-2 mission will be among the most challenging launches in SpaceX history with four separate upper-stage engine burns, three separate deployment orbits, a final propulsive passivation maneuver and a total mission duration of over six hours. The three orbits of the STP-2 mission for spacecraft deployment are:.

    As of October , the U. The satellites measure signals from GPS and other navigation satellites as they skim through the atmosphere, using them as a probe of temperature and humidity conditions that fed into weather forecast models. Studies have concluded that GPS radio occultation data is among the best sources of data for improving the accuracy of forecasts. However, the memo, prepared by a joint Executive Steering Committee of U.

    Uncertainty about funding for those payloads, in turn, created problems for NSPO, responsible for the satellites. NOAA, under pressure from Congress, started a pilot program in to purchase commercial GPS radio occultation data, awarding contracts to GeoOptics and Spire that concluded earlier this year.

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Innovation Act of , signed into law in April, authorized continued development of a government-funded satellite system to collect GPS radio occultation data. Deployments began approximately 12 minutes after liftoff and ended approximately 3 hours and 32 minutes after liftoff. We congratulate our customers, NSPO in Taiwan, and NOAA in the United States on the successful launch of their constellation and look forward to following their mission journey as they move through commissioning and into start of operations.

    In addition to two science payloads for detecting ionospheric data, each of the 6 satellites in the constellation is carrying an advanced GNSS receiver to low-inclination-angle orbits and will collect atmospheric data at low and mid latitudes to provide sounding data to improve regional and global weather forecasting. The processed data will be provided by two data processing centers located in Taiwan and USA.

    The satellite is scheduled to be launched in Most of the low level signal processing will be done inside multiple reconfigurable FPGAs, which can be updated post-launch to track new in-band GNSS signals as they become available. TriG will greatly increase the amount and quality of data by employing digital beamforming to direct multiple simultaneous high-gain beams at GNSS satellites. The TriG receiver will have two processors, one for performing POD Precise Orbit Determination , and the other dedicated to occultation and other science applications.

    For a full-up occultation receiver the spacecraft would also have to accommodate a fore and an aft occultation antenna 2. TGRS performance features: This is the first time, 3D printed parts will function externally in outer space. The antenna arrays will capture atmospheric and ionospheric data to help improve weather prediction models and advance meteorological research on Earth.

    A standard antenna array support design is traditionally machined out of astroquartz, an advanced composite material certified for outer space. Building custom antenna arrays out of astroquartz is time consuming and expensive because of overall manufacturing process costs vacuum forming over a custom mold and lack of adjustability copper sheets are permanently glued between layers of astroquartz. In order to keep the project on time and on budget, JPL needed an alternative method.

    They turned to RedEye to produce 3D printed parts that could handle the complex array designs and also be strong enough to withstand the demands of outer space. Using FDM for a project like this has never been done before and it demonstrates how 3D printing is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry. While ULTEM has been well-vetted in the aerospace industry and is flammability rated by the FAA Federal Aviation Administration , it has not previously been used or tested for an exterior application in space.

    Therefore, in addition to standard functional testing i. To protect the antenna array supports against oxygen atoms and ultraviolet radiation, a layer of NASA's S13G protective paint was applied to the parts. From March — April , RedEye produced 30 antenna array structures for form, fit and function testing. In Feb. Ball Aerospace is under contract to build five replicas of the instrument under a firm fixed-priced contract. The IVM instrument employs gridded electrostatic analyzers to observe and characterize the in-situ plasma.

    All sensors are ram-facing. The IVM can measure the electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field and the ion motions parallel to the magnetic field through measurement of the ion drift velocity vector. Two sensors are part of the IVM package, the RPA Retarding Potential Analyzer and a DM Drift Meter , which together provide data to determine the total ion concentration, the major ion composition, the ion temperature and the ion velocity in the spacecraft reference frame. The SPLP is designed to measure absolute ion density, ion density fluctuations, and electron temperature.

    The Ion Trap is responsible for absolute ion density and density fluctuation measurements at sample rates up to 1 kHz for the identification of scintillating regions. The Surface Probe primarily measures electron temperature but also provides electron density, spacecraft potential and if necessary can perform the ion density fluctuation measurement. It provides a single electronic interface between the spacecraft bus and the IVM sensors.

    The RF Beacon includes the sensor electronics and antenna. Ground receivers will intercept the signals and derive information on ionospheric scintillation. The complete antenna unit has a volume of 25 cm x 25 cm x 35 cm. Ground segment:. NSPO will fully utilize the current ground facility to accommodate the mission needs of FormoSat-7 including: Subject of a FY15 solicitation for Data Services from commercial providers. Yen, G.

    Rocken, X. Yue, B. Kuo, P. Wilczynski, D. Ector, R. Fong, D. Whiteley, E. Yang, K. Cook, V. Chu, B. Schreiner, D. Ector, P.

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    Wilczynski, T. Liu, N. Kuo, D. Mamula, D. Yen, Chen-Joe Fong, G. Cook, Chen-Joe Fong, M. Wenkel, P. Wilczynski, et al. Yen, Jer Ling, Tiger J. Liu, G. Lee, H. Tsai, J. Liu, C. Lin, T. Matsuo, L. Esterhuizen, T. Meehan, D. Robison, J. Esterhuizen, Garth W. Franklin, Thomas K. Meehan, Timothy N. Munson, David E. Robinson, Dmitry Turbiner, Lawarence E. Young, Tom K. The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J.

    Four different components of the Falcon Heavy will follow trajectories toward different landing zones, or toward Earth orbit image credit: SpaceX Figure STP-2 launch animation video credit: SpaceX Orbits: The STP-2 mission will be among the most challenging launches in SpaceX history with four separate upper-stage engine burns, three separate deployment orbits, a final propulsive passivation maneuver and a total mission duration of over six hours. GPS tracking capability.